UPSC CSE Mains Geography Syllabus
(These syllabus may change from time to time. Please check with the relevant Public Service Commission websites for any changes in the syllabus)
Paper - I
Principles of Geography Physical Geography:
1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
2. Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
3. Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sealevel changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
4. Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
5. Environmental Geography: Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
1. Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
2. Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
3. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural - urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
4. Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch;Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
Paper – II
Geography of India
1. Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
2. Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
3. Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and socialforestry; Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua - culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic
zones; agro- ecological regions.
4. Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.
5. Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
7. Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.
8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
9. Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.
INDIAN GEOGRAPHY MCQs
1. The term ‘active layer’ is associated with
(A) Fluvial deposition
(B) Periglacial processes
(C) Plate tectonic
(D) Processess of soil formation
2. Which one of the following place will never get the vertical rays of the sun ?
3. Hydration process belongs to
(A) Physical and Biological processes
(B) Physical and Chemical processes
(C) Biological and Chemical processes
(D) Chemical processes
4. The minimum distance between the sun and earth occurs on
A:-July − 4
B:-June − 21
C:-December − 22
5. What is the major wind related phenomenon responsible for summer drought in Mediterranean type of region ?
(A) Shifting of trade winds polewards in summers.
(B) Shifting of trade winds equatorwards in summers.
(C) Blowing of Westerlies from the continents in summers.
(D) Blowing South-Westerly.
6. Which one of the following is not a factor to affect the atmospheric pressure ?
(B) Presence of water vapour
7. Find out the correct sequence of planetary winds found from the equator to pole.
(A) Westerlies, Trade, Polar wind
(B) Trade, Westerlies, Polar wind
(C) Trade, Polar wind, Westerlies
(D) Polar wind, Westerlies, Trade
8. The rain-fed and rain-shadow areas are the characteristics of the
(A) Cyclonic rainfall
(B) Convectional rainfall
(C) Orographic rainfall
(D) Thermal rainfall
9. Which of the following is not an airpollutant ?
10:-Which of the following has maximum speed ?
11. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). Select your answer from the codes given below :
Assertion (A) : Deforestation result in the increase of concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Reason (R) : Forests utilise carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis for manufacturing of food.
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
12. Aizawl is situated on which of the following river bank ?
13. The “wave-cut platform” is found in
(A) California coast
(B) Hokkaido coast
(C) Madagascar coast
(D) Malabar coast
14. The average depth of ‘equatorial-counter’ current is
(A) 50 m
(B) 100 m
(C) 150 m
(D) 200 m
15. The Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio Current move forcefully northward as a result of (A) Western intensification
(B) Eastern intensification
(C) Northern intensification
(D) Southern intensification
16. “The Principles of Human Geography” was authored by
(A) E. Huntington
(B) H.H. Borrow
(C) F. Ratzel
(D) E.C. Semple
17. The term ‘Cosmography’ was coined by
(A) Mackinder Halford J.
(C) Kant Emmanuel
18. Ayodhya situates on the bank of which of the following rivers?
19. The concept of ‘Spread’ and ‘Backwash’ effects was introduced by
(A) A.O. Hirschman
(B) Gunnar Myrdal
(C) Gunder Frank
(D) Sameer Amin
20. The philosophical view advocating that man is responsible for making his own nature is known as
21. Eastern most point of India is ___________
(A) Indira Point (B) Cape Comerine (C) Indira Col (D) Kibithu
22. ___________ is the only Indian State through which the Indus flows.
(A) Jammu Kashmir (B) Gujarat (C) Rajasthan (D) Haryana
23. Which State in India has recorded the lowest growth rate during 2001-2011 Census ? (A) Kerala
(B) West Bengal
24. Read Assertion (A) and Reason (R) and find the correct answer from the codes given below :
Assertion (A) : The very high population density of more than 400 persons / km2 extends from upper Indus-Satlaj-Ganga Brahmaputra Valley and Delta.
Reason (R) : This phenomena is attributed to rich alluvial soils, flat land, rice and wheat cultivation, irrigation facilities and favourable climatic conditions.
(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is correct.
25. The Haldikhat Pass is part of which mountain range?
26. Among the following natural resources which resource is providing more livelihood to the people ?
(A) Water (B) Land (C) Forest (D) Mineral
27. Which one of the following factors is more crucial for agricultural development ?
(A) Tractors (B) Fertilizers (C) Irrigation (D) Gentle slope
28. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). Select your answer from the codes given below :
Assertion (A) : China has the very fast growing economy of the world.
Reason (R) : China has rich mineral resources and huge diversified labour force.
(A) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(B) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
(C) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not correct explanation.
(D) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is correct explanation.
29. What is the ideal minimum temperature for growth of sugarcane ?
(A) 10 °C (B) 15 °C (C) 20 °C (D) 25 °C
30. Who developed the technique to measure the agricultural efficiency ?
(A) S.S. Bhatia (B) R.L. Singh (C) S.M. Rafiullah (D) L.D. Stamp
31. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). Select your answer from the codes given below :
Assertion (A) : Panchayati Raj Act empowered local bodies participation in planning process.
Reason (R) : Panchayati Raj institutions are having three tier systems in planning and executing development projects within their jurisdiction.
(A) (A) is correct, but (R) is false.
(B) (A) is false, but (R) is correct.
(C) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is correct explanation of (A).
(D) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
32. Who propounded the Heartland Theory used in political geography ?
(A) Alfred Mackinder (B) O.H.K. Spate (C) Arthur Geddes (D) J.A. Steers
33. What do you mean by ‘Lebensraum’ in political geography ?
(A) Dead space (B) Living space (C) Administrative unit (D) Religious organisation
34. Which one of the following factors affecting more at present to the voting behaviour in India ?
(A) Development (B) Caste system (C) Religion base (D) Old base of political parties
35. Which of the following names of shifting cultivation in Orissa is correct ?
(A) Podu (B) Bewar (C) Pendo (D) Jhum
36. India has been divided into 13 Macro Planning regions. Which of the following authors have delineated planning regions of India ?
(A) P. Sen Gupta and Sadasyuk Gailina
(B) R.P. Mishra, K.V. Sundaram and V.L.S. Prakasa Rao
(C) L.S. Bhatta
(D) O.H.K. Spate & Learmonth
37. Which of the following geographers defined region as : “A geographic area unified culturally, unified at first economically and later by consensus of thought, education, recreation etc. which distinguishes it from other areas.” ?
(A) Vidal de la Blache
(B) A.J. Herbertson
(C) R.E. Dickinson
(D) K. Young
38. ‘The Eardkunde’ was published in the year 1817. Which one of the following authored the book ?
(A) O. Peschel (B) Carl Ritter (C) W.M. Davis (D) G. Taylor
39. Regional Imbalances of Economic development largely affected by which of the following factors ?
(A) Regional disparity in resources
(B) Lesser resource utilization
(C) Lack of education
(D) Lesser demand of the people
40. The coldest place in India is ___________.
(A) Drass Valley (B) Shimla (C) Kashmir (D) Kodaikanal
41. The Pir Panjal range lies in
(A) Outer Himalayas (B) Trans Himalayas (C) Greater Himalayas (D) Middle Himalayas
42. North-east monsoon is commonly known as
(A) Graphic rainfall (B) October heat (C) Cherri Blossom (D) Mango shower
43. Which one of the following statements indicates the chief characteristics of the Policentric city ?
(A) Circumferential urban beltway
(B) Replacing sub-urban to urban
(C) All roads lead to downtown
(D) Many downtowns
44. Which one of the following number of states is correct for ‘Empowered Action-Group States’ of India ?
(A) 5 (B) 12 (C) 8 (D) 16
45. Find the sequence of higher to lower rainfall from the following areas of India :
i. Ganga Delta
iii. Eastern U.P.
iv. Northern Gujarat
(A) i, ii, iii, iv
(B) ii, i, iii, iv
(C) iii, iv, ii, I
(D) iv, iii, ii, i
46. Which one of the following statistical techniques involves a large number of variables to be summarised into smaller dimensions ?
(C) Factor Analysis
47. Which one of the following averages is not a measure of central tendency ?
(A) Harmonic mean
(B) Geographic mean centre
(C) Geometric mean
(D) Arithmetic mean
48. Red colour of the ‘red soil’ is due to the high concentration of ___________.
(A) Calcium oxide (B) Aluminium oxide (C) Iron oxide (D) Sodium chloride
49. Which one of the following diagrams is most suitable for depicting the distribution of urban land-use types of spatially spread urban centres ?
50. A map with the scale of 1/50,000 is enlarged to 5-times, which one of the following scales is correct for the enlarged map ?
51. Egg bowl of India is ___________.
(A) Kerala (B) Assam (C) Andhra Pradesh (D) Arunachal Pradesh
52. The valleys which drain in the same direction as the original consequent drainage but at the lower topographic levels and have developed with respect to new base levels are known as
(A) Resequent (B) Obsequent (C) Insequent (D) SubsequentAns: A
53. The concept of ‘base level erosion’ was proposed by
(A) Davis (B) Malott (C) Johnson (D) Powell
54. The main occupation of the Gonds is
(A) Food gathering (B) Forestry (C) Hunting (D) Cultivation
55. Which one of the following is largest in areal extent ?
(A) Cultural realm (B) Cultural region (C) Cultural landscape (D) Cultural point
56. What among the following is the correct sequence of the three stages through which a new boundary under most conditions is determined ?
(A) Delimitation, demarcation, allocation
(B) Allocation, delimitation, demarcation
(C) Demarcation, delimitation, allocation
(D) Allocation, demarcation, delimitation
57. Which one of the following is not usually considered an indicator of social well being ? (A) Infant mortality (B) Female literacy (C) Availability of potable water (D) Crime
58. Who among the following was an advocate of export based model ?
(A) Alonso (B) Kuklinski (C) Perroux (D) North
59. The Vale of Kashmir is the only level strip of land in the Himalayas. Which river has laid its deposits to form this level plain ?
(A) Ravi (B) Sutlej (C) Beas (D) Jhelum
60. In which of the following States of India women outnumber men ?
(A) Uttar Pradesh (B) Karnataka (C) Haryana (D) Kerala
61. Given below are the two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R).
Assertion (A) : The velocity of moving ice increases with steepness of slope of the area and thickness of glacial ice.
Reason (R) : The velocity decreases to the sides owing to lesser depth of ice and friction against the valley walls and the bottom floor. In the context of the above two statements, which one of the following is correct ?
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true. Ans: B
62. About 85 percent of the total iron ore production of India is from :
(A) Jharkhand and Orissa (B) Karnataka and Orissa (C) Bihar and Madhya Pradesh (D) Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
63. The normal cycle of erosion is associated with
(A) Marine erosion (B) Wind erosion (C) River erosion (D) Glacial erosionAns: C
64. In the sub-continent of India, the region frequently affected by tropical cyclones is the (A) Gujarat coast (B) Coromandel coast (C) Konkan coast (D) Malabar coast
65. Which of the following regions/areas is not affected by the monsoon of the Arabian Sea branch ?
(A) Western Ghat (B) Deccan Plateau (C) Madhya Pradesh (D) Punjab Plain
66. The heights of individual points on topographical maps are indicated by :
(A) Spot height only (B) Benchmark only (C) Triangulation point only (D) All of the above
67. The broadest part of the Himalayas lies in
(A) Himachal Pradesh (B) Arunachal Pradesh (C) Jammu & Kashmir (D) Nagaland
68. Which of the following groups of scholars stressed the role of lateral erosion by streams in the formation of pediments ?
(A) Mc. Gee, Paige, Blackwelder
(B) Mc Gee, Blackwelder, Johnson
(C) Paige, Blackwelder, Johnson
(D) Paige, Johnson, Lawson
69. Which of the following is not a topographic evidence of rejuvenation in landscape ?
(A) Incised meanders
(B) Structural benches
(C) Paired valley terraces
(D) Multi-cyclic valley
70. If point A is at 230 m and point B at 570 m elevations from mean sea level with a horizontal equivalent of 2.0 km, which one of the following gradients is correct between these two points ?
(A) 0.7 percent (B) 7.0 percent (C) 17.0 percent (D) 27.0 percent
71. Which one of the following techniques is not suitable for showing urban population on the map ?
(A) Circles (B) Divided circles (C) Spheres (D) Hachures
72. Which one of the following statements is not correct ?
(A) Contour maps are isopleth maps.
(B) Isopleths are lines of equal value.
(C) Isopleth technique always takes administrative boundaries into account.
(D) Isopleth technique is suitable for continuous data.
73. Consider the following statements and select the correct answer using the codes given below :
1. Deserts, marshes and hilly tracts are known as the negative areas of population.
2. Dot method is the best technique to show the distribution of population.
3. Dot method can be used to show age and sex composition.
4. The dot map cannot be transferred into isopleth.
(A) only 1 and 3 are correct.
(B) 1, 2 and 3 are correct.
(C) 1, 2 and 4 are correct.
(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct.
74. Which of the following is most suitable to show the unequality in the distribution ?
(A) Lorenz curve (B) Bar graph (C) Circle diagram (D) Isopleth
75. Which one of the following is the correct geometric mean of the data set : 0,50,100,100,150,250,450,500 ?
(A) 125 (B) 100 (C) 200 (D) 0
76. Which of the following types of clouds appears at the highest level in the sky ?
(A) Alto – cumulus (B) Cirro-cumulus (C) Cumulo-nimbus (D) Strato-cumulus
77. Atmospheric temperature decreases with height in the troposphere because
(A) Air at higher altitude is less dense
(B) Solar radiation is less at higher level
(C) There are more atmospheric gases at higher altitudes
(D) The atmosphere is heated by radiation from the surface
78. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?
(A) Foehn : Warm dry winds moving down the Alps
(B) Mistral : Cold wind blowing from Alps over France
(C) Santa Ana : Warm dry wind moving down Appalachian
(D) Bora : Cold winds experienced along the eastern coast of the Adriatic sea
79. Which one of the following gases is not a natural element of the atmosphere ?
(A) Krepton (B) Argon (C) Chloroflurocarbon (D) Water vapour
80. In Koppen’s classification of climate, the symbol Aw refers to
(A) Tropical Savanna climate (B) Monsoon climate (C) Tropical Rainforest climate (D) Steppe climate
81. The strongest winds in a hurricane are found in
(A) the eye of the hurricane
(B) the spiral bands of thunderstorm
(C) the eye wall of the hurricane
(D) the easterly waves
82. Which one of the following characterizes paternoster lake ?
(A) A lake of volcanic origin
(B) A shallow stretch of water separated from the sea
(C) A crescent shaped lake formed due to cut-off of a river meander
(D) Lake formed on glacial stairways
83. Thornthwaite’s modified climatic classification is based on the concept of :
(A) Effective temperature
(B) Precipitation index
(C) Potential evapotranspiration
(D) Potential precipitation
84. Selva forests are
(A) Broad leaf evergreen forests
(B) Broad leaf deciduous forests
(C) Coniferous evergreen forests
(D) Coniferous deciduous forests
85. The specific place of an organism in an ecosystem is called as :
(C) Trophic level
(D) Food Pyramid
86. Which of the following is referred to as producer in marine ecosystem ?
(A) Small fish
87. Saline soils are the results of
(A) very high precipitation and leaching of the soil
(B) high rate of evaporation and very little leaching of the soil.
(C) high precipitation and very little leaching of the soil
(D) all the above
88. “There is no holiday for vegetation – growth is rapid, uninterrupted and continuous.” This statement applies to
(A) Taiga region (B) Monsoon region (C) Mediterranean region (D) Rainy tropics
89. The largest variety of plants and animals is found in the
(A) Temperate forests (B) Monsoon forests (C) Tropical forests (D) Tropical grassland
90. Which one of the following statements about salinity is not correct ?
(A) Salinity is directly related to precipitation
(B) There exists a direct relationship between the rate of evaporation and salinity (
C) Low salinity is found near the mouth of a river
(D) The salinity is highest at the tropics and decreases towards poles and equator
91.The origin of the ocean currents is related to
(A) Gravitational force (B) Winds (C) Salinity and density (D) All of the above
92. Schaefer was in favour of :
(A) Exceptionalism (B) Idiography (C) Areal differentiation (D) Scientific generalization
93. Which of the following principles does not belong to logical positivism ?
(A) Principle of causation (B) Structuralism (C) Behaviourism (D) Functionalism
94. Which of the following matches is not correct ?
(A) William Bunge- Theoretical Geography
(B) David Harvey -Social Well being : A Spatial Perspective
(C) David Smith -Human Geography : A Welfare Approach
(D) R. Peet -Modern Geographical Thought
95. The statement that “Egypt is the gift of the river Nile” is attributed to
(A) Aristotle (B) Herodotus (C) Strabo (D) Seneca
96.Who among the following pleaded that history be treated geographically and geography be treated historically ?
(A) Homer (B) Thales (C) Hecataeus (D) Herodotus
97. Who among the following Arab scholars made corrections to Ptolemy’s book ?
(A) Al-Masudi (B) Al-Idrisi (C) Ibn-Khaldun (D) Ibn-Batuta
98. Which one of the following is the philosophical basis of quantitative revolution ?
(A) Existentialism (B) Idealism (C) Phenomenology (D) Positivism
99.The concept of paradigm was propounded by
(A) Kant (B) Peet (C) Kuhn (D) Haggett
100. Who among the following wanted to develop ‘Universal Science’ encompassing all aspects of knowledge ?
(A) Humboldt (B) Ritter (C) Recluse (D) Guyot
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