(These syllabus may change from time to time. Please check with the relevant Public Service Commission websites for any changes in the syllabus)
Unit 1. TROPICAL AND DRY LAND FRUIT PRODUCTION
Commercial varieties of regional, national and international importance, ecophysiological requirements, recent trends in propagation, rootstock influence, planting systems, cropping systems, root zone and canopy management, nutrient management, water management, fertigation, role of bioregulators, abiotic factors limiting fruit production, physiology of flowering, pollination fruit set and development, honeybees in cross pollination, physiological disorders- causes and remedies, quality improvement by management practices; maturity indices, harvesting, grading, packing, storage and ripening techniques; industrial and export potential, Agri. Export Zones(AEZ) and industrial supports.
Unit 2. SUBTROPICAL AND TEMPERATE FRUIT PRODUCTION
Commercial varieties of regional, national and international importance, ecophysiological requirements, recent trends in propagation, rootstock influence, planting systems, cropping systems, root zone and canopy management, nutrient management, water management, fertigation, bioregulation, abiotic factors limiting fruit production, physiology of flowering, fruit set and development, abiotic factors limiting production, physiological disorders-causes and remedies, quality improvement by management practices; maturity indices, harvesting, grading, packing, precooling, storage, transportation and ripening techniques; industrial and export potential, Agri Export Zones(AEZ) and industrial support. Crops: Apple, pear, quince, grapes, Plums, peach, apricot, cherries, Litchi, loquat, persimmon, kiwifruit, strawberry, Nuts- walnut, almond, pistachio, pecan, hazelnut, Minor fruits- mangosteen, carambola, bael, wood apple, fig, jamun, rambutan, pomegranate.
Unit 3. BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION
Biodiversity and conservation; issues and goals, centers of origin of cultivated fruits; primary and secondary centers of genetic diversity; Present status of gene centers; exploration and collection of germplasm; conservation of genetic resources – conservation in situ and ex situ. Germplasm conservation- problem of recalcitrancy - cold storage of scions, tissue culture, cryopreservation, pollen and seed storage; inventory of germplasm, introduction of germplasm, plant quarantine; Intellectual property rights, regulatory horticulture. Detection of genetic constitution of germplasm and maintenance of core group; GIS and documentation of local biodiversity, Geographical indication.
Unit 4. CANOPY MANAGEMENT IN FRUIT CROPS
Canopy management - importance and advantages; factors affecting canopy development; Canopy types and structures with special emphasis on geometry of planting, canopy manipulation for optimum utilization of light. Light interception and distribution in different types of tree canopies; Spacing and utilization of land area - Canopy classification; Canopy management through rootstock and scion; Canopy management through plant growth inhibitors, training and pruning and management practices; Canopy development and management in relation to growth, flowering, fruiting and fruit quality in temperate fruits, grapes, passion fruits, mango, sapota, guava, citrus and ber.
Unit 5. BREEDING OF FRUIT CROPS
Origin and distribution, taxonomical status – species and cultivars, cytogenetics, genetic resources, blossom biology, breeding systems, breeding objectives, ideotypes, approaches for crop improvement – introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploid breeding, rootstock breeding, improvement of quality traits, resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses, biotechnological interventions, achievements and future thrust in the following selected fruit crops.Crops: Mango, banana and pineapple, Citrus, grapes, guava and sapota, Jackfruit, papaya, custard apple, aonla, avocado and ber,Mangosteen, litchi, jamun, phalsa, mulberry, raspberry, kokam and nuts, Apple, pear, plums, peach, apricot, cherries and strawberry.
Unit 6. POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY
Maturity indices, harvesting practices for specific market requirements, influence of pre-harvest practices, enzymatic and textural changes, respiration, transpiration; Physiology and biochemistry of fruit ripening, ethylene evolution and ethylene management, factors leading to post-harvest loss, pre-cooling; Treatments prior to shipment, viz., chlorination, waxing, chemicals, biocontrol agents and natural plant products. Methods of storage- ventilated, refrigerated, MAS, CA storage, physical injuries and disorders; Packing methods and transport, principles and methods of preservation, food processing, canning, fruit juices, beverages, pickles, jam, jellies, candies; Dried and dehydrated products, nutritionally enriched products, fermented fruit beverages, packaging technology, processing waste management, food safety standards.
Unit 7. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Growth and development- definition, parameters of growth and development, growth dynamics, morphogenesis; Annual, semi-perennial and perennial horticultural crops, environmental impact on growth and development, effect of light, photosynthesis and photoperiodism vernalisation, effect of temperature, heat units, thermoperiodism; Assimilate partitioning during growth and development, influence of water and mineral nutrition during growth and development, biosynthesis of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscissic acid, ethylene, brasssinosteroids, growth inhibitors, morphactins, role of plant growth promoters and inhibitors; Developmental physiology and biochemistry during dormancy, bud break, juvenility, vegetative to reproductive interphase, flowering, pollination, fertilization and fruit set, fruit drop, fruit growth, ripening and seed development; Growth and developmental process during stress - manipulation of growth and development, impact of pruning and training, chemical manipulations in horticultural crops, molecular and genetic approaches in plant growth development.
Unit 8. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS
Harnessing bio-technology in horticultural crops, influence of plant materials, physical, chemical factors and growth regulators on growth and development of plant cell, tissue and organ culture; Callus culture - types, cell division, differentiation, morphogenesis, organogenesis, embryogenesis; Use of bioreactors and in vitro methods for production of secondary metabolites, suspension culture, nutrition of tissues and cells, regeneration of tissues, ex vitro, establishment of tissue cultured plants; Physiology of hardening - hardening and field transfer, organ culture – meristem, embryo, anther, ovule culture, embryo rescue, somaclonal variation, protoplast culture and fusion; Construction and identification of somatic hybrids and cybrids, wide hybridization, in vitro pollination and fertilization, haploids, in vitro mutation, artificial seeds, cryopreservation, rapid clonal propagation, genetic engineering and transformation in horticulture crops, use of molecular markers. In vitro selection for biotic and abiotic stress, achievements of biotechnology in horticultural crops.
Unit 9. PROTECTED FRUIT CULTURE
Greenhouse – World scenario, Indian situation: present and future, Different agro-climatic zones in India, Environmental factors and their effects on plant growth; Basics of greenhouse design, different types of structures – glasshouse, shade net, poly tunnels - Design and development of low cost greenhouse structures; Interaction of light, temperature, humidity, CO2, water on crop regulation - Greenhouse heating, cooling, ventilation and shading; Types of ventilation- Forced cooling techniques - Glazing materials - Micro irrigation and Fertigation; Automated greenhouses, microcontrollers, waste water recycling, Management of pest and diseases – IPM.
1. MCQs in Horticulture by Bharat Singh Hada
2. Introduction To Horticulture
by Kumar N