(These syllabus may change from time to time. Please check with the relevant Public Service Commission websites for any changes in the syllabus)
- Properties of amino acids, 10,2°.3°,4° structures of protein, physical interactions, protein metabolism and urea cycle, heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein related diseases. Enzymes and their kinetics, inhibitions, Allostery Chromatography, mass spectroscopy, electrophoresis. Macro and micro nutrients- related diseases. Vitamins and their chemistry Biochemical thermodynamics, Enzyme kinetics
- CABOHYDRATE Structure of mono, di and polysaccharides and their chemical reactions carbohydrate metabolism- glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, HMP, glycogen metabolism, TCA, oxidative phosphorylation, Regulation of glucose metabolism . Diabetes case studies. GAGs. Glycoproteins. L1PIDS Digestion, Absorption. Secretion. Transport through blood.Lipid biosynthesis, oxidation. Specialized fatty acids, ketone bodies. Phosphofipid metabolism , Glycolipid metabolism,. Cholesterol and steroid metabolism
- Membrane Alteration and dialysis Biomembranes and sub cellular organization of eukaryotic cells . transport across cell membranes, activity of neurons and synapse, major neurotransmitters Protein sorting- mitochondria and chloroplast protein synthesis and targeting, Peroxisomal protein, ER, Golgi . Post translational modification, exocytosis and endocytosis
- Cytoskeleton- actin , myosin, intermediate filament, cell locomotion, muscles , microtubules and their dynamics, Cilia and flagella. Cell cycle and its control in eukaryotes. molecular mechanism - yeast and mammalian cell. cell to cell interaction Important viral and bacterial diseases of ptants,animal and Human.
- Classification of microbesand virus , Microscopy, N2 fixation Microbial fermentation, antibiotics, organic acid and vitamins production . Important fungal viral and bacterial diseases of ptants,animal and Human
- Component of immune system- cells and organs, antigens / antibodies- structures and types. Ag/Ab reactions. B- cell maturation, Activation and Differentiation, Ag processing and presentation. T-cell maturation, Activation, Differentiation. immunological methods Complement system, cytokines, leukocyte migration, and inflammation, hypersensitive reactions, vaccines, Autoimmunity , AIDS, immune response to infectious diseases, transplantation, immunology
- Mendel laws and their applications, genetic counseling, genetic interaction, multiple alleles, linkage analysis , crossing over , sex determination , sex - limited and sex - linked, chromatin structure and function .chomosome mutation, concept of gene, concept of gene, organelle genome, nuclear genome mutation and selection , gene transfer in bacteria.
- Southern , northern western south western hybridization , colony hybridization , Dot blot technique, PCR and its application, real time PCR, Molecular probes, Electrophoresis-agarose and SDS-PAGE Restriction endonuclease , selection of recombinant clones radioactivity. autoradiography. sedimentation.
- Nucleic acid structure (1°,2°,3°) nucleic acid binding properties, recombination , Replication - initiation, priming, termination and regulation, DNA sequencing. PCR and its application . gene expressing and regulation, two hybrid system, Operon model. Processing of transcript, t-RNA genetic code, protein synthesis, DNA methylation multigene families. mobile genetic element, mutagenesis and DNA repair mechanism, Plasmid, recombinant DNA and molecular cloning, cloning vectors, gene libraries analysis and use of cloned DNA
- Origin of life . Concept of evolution . molecular evolution . Theories of organic evolution. Variability, isolation, selection, genetic drift, speciation . Population genetics , adaptation , mimicry geological distribution of animals , evolution of man, insular fauna